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Basic Facts
Country name conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia
Gevernment typemixed parliamentary/presidential
Capital name: Ulaanbaatar
geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 53 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September
Flag descriptionthree equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
Currencytogrog/tugrik (MNT)
Internet country
Ports and terminalsKheyrabad, Shir Khan
Agriculture productswheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Industriesconstruction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
LocationNorthern Asia, between China and Russia
Coordinates46 00 N, 105 00 E
Area total: 1,564,116 sq km
Boundaries total: 8,220 km
border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
Climatedesert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrainvast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Natural resourcesoil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Natural hazardsdust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Population2,832,224 (July 2006 est.)
Ethnic groupsMongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)
ReligionsBuddhist Lamaist 50%, none 40%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4% (2004)
LanguagesKhalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)

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